Yes the year does run from Jan to December but your account will not be reset until about the middle of January. this is to allow any nights and points from stays late in December to be credited before the account is reset for the new year. Depending on what your elite status was and how many nights you stayed the reset will start you off with the appropriate number of roll-over nights.
For those not aware - nights that rolled over from 2010 to 2011 will also be deducted. So for example if you had 12 nights rollover into 2011 and a total of 102 nights in 2011 (including the rollover nights) the calculation would be 102 minus 75 (plat status) minus 12 (roll-over nights from 2010) leaving you with 15 nights to roll-over from 2011 into 2012.
I'm reading your 44 nights as lifetime nights. I'm reading your 30 nights as 2011 nights.
30 nights would make you a Silver...just 20 nights short of Gold.
If the rollover happens, they'll take nights in excess of 10, the Silver threshold, and roll them into 2012. That would mean you'll start 2012 with 20. If you stay 30 nights again this year, you'll hit GOLD.
Yes - log in to your Rewards Account on Marriott.com and look at the account activity - it will show the number of nights stayed in 2011 and also the bonus nights and a break down of the bonus nights. One of the items will be the rollover nights from 2010 to 2011. Do it soon as it will reset for 2012 very soon.