First there are the wonderful museums -- the Van Gogh Museum, Anne Frank's House and the Rijksmuseum. Take a boat tour of the canals and just walk around -- it's very manageable. I will leave some of the more unorthodox suggestions to others, but make sure to have a many course Indonesian meal.
... the local name for one of those many course meals is "Indonesian Rijsttafel"! (pronounced Reysttaafel)
after the starter (if you have one) you get many small delicacies all served at the same time, with several kinds of rice.
it is an imitation of a royal or prince's festive buffet in Indonesia in the previous century. Some dishes are hot, most are not.
people drink white wine of (even better) just fresh draught beers with the meal.