Basically there are 4 levels, webster580.
You start as a rewards member
After staying 10 nights, you'll reach Silver Elite
After 50 nights, you are Gold Elite
And at 75 nights and above, you are Platinum Elite
Each year the counter resets, so you have to earn your status every year.
A couple things to consider
Hope that answers your question.
bejacob and painedplatinum nailed it. The higher than plat prem is the VIP level. Its for Marriott family, executives and board members....and yes its rumored that Bill himself hands you the card. I suspect that's more of a corp swag thing, I would wager anyone with that kinda clout would probably not need the card to get properly serviced