Yes. If you eat at a Marriott restaurant (even if you are not staying there) and use your Marriott Rewards credit card, you will get 5 points for every $1 you spend. Please note at some resorts like The Cosmopolitan, the hotel restaurants are not eligible for this benefit so you will only get 2 points for every $1 you spend. This is rare though.
If you stay at a hotel and then charge the restaurant bill to your room, you will get 10 points per $1 spend as part of your hotel points earnings PLUS the 5 points for every $1 you spend if you are using your Marriott Rewards credit card on the room.
Good luck. Per my note, restaurants at resorts are not always eligible. At The Cosmopolitan for example, restaurants are operated independently of Marriott so you do not get equivalent Marriott points.
A similar issue applies to hotel gift shops. Some elite levels are supposed to get 10% off purchases at gift shops, but several gift shops are not actually Marriott gift shops even though they reside at Marriott. They could be just leasing the space from Marriott.
We spoke to our Rewards team. At the following properties Marriott Rewards members will receive 10 points (base amount) per $1 spent on room rate and all incidentals charges (including on-site dining):
In regards to your inquiry about utilizing your credit card you would need to contact Chase Visa to determine the rules/policies on earnings.
Hope this helps!