No, if you did not originally charge your hotel dinner to your room, you will not receive the additional points on your hotel charges (double dipping, so to speak, as you get points for your room and room charges and paying with your Marriott credit card).
You will only receive the points based on what was charged to your credit card. And, that differs, based on Marriott brand.
It's not possible for you to enter an authorization code to have your points from the restaurant added. I would recommend contacting MR customer service to see if they could manually add it after the stay has posted to your account. Their contact info can be found here: https://www.marriott.com/suggest/default.mi